Loftus & palmer edit classic editor history talk (0) share contents summary edit aim: edit to investigate whether memories can change due to information given after events evaluation edit strengths: edit asb ib study wiki is a fandom lifestyle community view mobile site deadpool cable thor. More than 40 years ago, loftus and palmer (1974) conducted a pioneering experiment in which they presented participants with video footage of several car crashes and then, in a written questionnaire, modified the word that described the event asking the participants to assess the speed of the vehicles involved. An adaptation of loftus and palmer’s (1974) experiment on automobile destruction 51 participants were randomly assigned to three separate conditions all participants viewed a film of a staged mugging then answered a question on the event. Loftus and palmer (1974) page 15 eyewitness testimony grant et al (1998) page 20 context-dependent memory developmental psychology external influences on children’s behaviour bandura et al (1961) page 26 transmission of aggression chaney et al (2004) page 30 funhaler study. Evaluation: research method: (lab)+ = because the iv – the verb in the critical question (smashed, hit, collided, bumped, contacted) – could be manipulated to observe its effect on the dv – speed estimates – causal relationships could be demonstrated ie loftus and palmer were able to show that the verb in the leading question influenced speed estimates given by participants.
Loftus and palmer (1974) aim: to study the influence of leading questions – to look at whether leading questions would affect estimates of speed and in a follow up study to see whether recall of an event would be affected by a leading question procedure: experiment 1: 45 participants watched 7 clips of different car accidents and were asked to estimate the speeds. Loftus et al, (1987) – some facts about “weapon focus”, journal of law and human behaviour 11 (1), 55–62 background this is the second study we look at from the ‘ interviewing witnesses ’ section of ‘ making a case . Loftus and palmer 1974 this study was conducted to determine whether memory could be distorted by other information, which occurs after the event the idea of the study was to see if any information they supplied influenced the witness’s memory information they had for the event. It would also be helpful to know about more recent research into reconstructive memory, such as that by elizabeth loftus bartlett (1932) loftus & palmer t described loftus’ research into leading questions but i have tried to make the two halves – description and evaluation – evenly balanced.
Loftus & palmer (1974) loftus and palmer performed a number of experiments where they demonstrated that people’s memory for an event can be manipulated by very simple manipulations they showed that evaluation the experiment was conducted in a laboratory and the participants were students lab. Anne thorpe in powerpoint format, though i would only use slide 2 to show to the students i photocopy slide 1 and get the students to do a cut and stick activity in which they match up the evaluative issue to its explanation and an outline of how it can be applied to loftus & palmer's study. Loftus and palmer developed the following explanation called the reconstructive hypothesis: they argue that two kinds of information go into a person's memory of an event and nothing else control is intended to allow us to conclude that it is the iv. Loftus has performed and demonstrated a vast majority of research intewt, but the work with her fellow colleague, palmer, proved to be one of her most significant research studies intewt the idea that memory is a reconstructive process, is what forms the work on ewt by loftus and her colleagues.
Evaluation of explanation loftus and palmer argue that two kinds of information go into a person's memory of a complex event the first is the information obtained from perceiving the event, and the second is the other information supplied to us after the event over time, information from these two sources may be integrated in such a way that. According to loftus and palmer's (1974) study on reconstructive memory, ii to manipulate ones memory by the intensity of a word when estimating the sp in an accident. • loftus & palmer’s study used artificial situation therefore generalizing the results to real life would be an issue = low ecological validity d = demand characteristics • participants probably looked for clues on how to behave and will try to give loftus & palmer answers they were looking for.
The participants were decieved as the hypothesis about leading questions was not revealed to them distractor questions were used to conceal the hypothesis - necessary to ensure that demand characteristics did not affect the results. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior 13, 585-589 (1974) reconstruction of automobile destruction: an example of the interaction between language and memory~ elizabeth f loftus and john c palmer university of washington two experiments are reported in which subjects viewed films of automobile accidents and then answered questions about events occurring in the films. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory misleading questions need not have the same effect as has been found in laboratory studies (eg loftus & palmer) reconstructive memory. Evaluation: the results of gabbert et al also have questionable ecological validity however, like loftus and palmer, these witnesses knew they were taking part in an experiment and were more likely to have paid close attention to the details of the video clip therefore, these results do not reflect everyday examples of crime, where.
Loftus and palmer (1974) evaluation – loftus and palmer (1974) only consider two kinds of information which create memories: information about the event and information after the event. Start studying loftus and palmer evaluation learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Loftus and palmer (1974): reconstruction of automobile destruction 1 imagine that you are an eyewitness to an armed robbery evaluation perhaps the greatest strength of loftus and palmer’s experiment is the degree of control over confounding variables as the study evidence such as loftus’, the devlin report (1976) recommended. Loftus and palmer, bandura et al freud research setting not created by investigator thigpen and cleckley bandura et al fundamental purpose of task is realistic (imitating behaviour.
The researchers wanted to study the phenomenon known as reconstructive memory the theory was first suggested by bartlett (1932) he argued that established knowledge called schemas influence cognitive processing and demonstrated that cultural schemas could distort memory. Critical evaluation loftus an pickrell's lost in the mall technique method the study included 24 participants, 3 males and 21 females ranging from 18 to 53. Evaluation strengths both parts of loftus and palmer (1974) are laboratory experiments with strong, scientific controls (for example, they all watched the same film and were asked identical questions – except for the verb change), which means the study is. A viideo outlining the main details of loftus and palmer's 1974 study into eyewitness memory and leading questions.
Loftus and palmer concluded that the wording of a question can have a significant effect on the outcome of the participant the verb 'smashed' acted as a leading question and affected the participants response to the broken glass question a week later, making the event seem more serious. Loftus and palmer evaluation -watching a film of an event is not the same as real life experiences as the witness is prepared for such event real life events take people by surprise therefore people react differently which may change their memory.